• Nur Fitriyah Postgraduate Applied Science Program in Midwifery, Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Melyana Nurul Widyawati Postgraduate Applied Science Program in Midwifery, Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia


Preeclampsia, periodontitis, pregnant Women


Background: Periodontitis may indicate the presence of chronic endotoxin inflammatory disease and cytokines, which are considered as risk factors for systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and cerebrovascular ischemia. Maternal periodontitis substitutes a potential microorganism that can penetrate the circulation, directly or indirectly has the capacity to affect the health of the mother and fetus. Preeclampsia is associated with an abnormal maternal cytokine response, such as elevated tumor necrosis tumor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1 and 6 levels that cause endothelial damage to the placenta.

Aims: Reviewing epidemiological associations between periodontitis and preeclampsia Methods: The method used in this paper is literature review. Literature searches were conducted using the electronic databases Science Direct and Google Scholar.

Results: Many studies showed that periodontitis is a risk factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. Periodontal disease is known to cause systemic inflammation early in pregnancy through increased IL-6 mechanism and increased systemic CRP, during pregnancy the increased progesterone hormone causes greater vascular permeability, stimulates the production of prostaglandins that can cause inflammation, and can decrease the regulation of interleukin-6 production that is less resistant to bacterial inflammation.

Conclussion: The guidance of maintaining the dental and oral health of pregnant and under-five mothers published by the government can be developed into a strategic and innovative program to increase community interest to regularly check the health of teeth to health facilities.


Hartnett E, Haber J, Krainovich-Miller B, Bella A, Vasilyeva A, Lange Kessler J. Oral Health in Pregnancy. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN. 2016;45(4):565-73.

J. E. Ha, Jun JK, Ko HJ, D. I. Paik, K. H.Bae. Association between periodontitis and preeclampsia in never-smokers: a prospective study. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2014;41(9):869-74.

Chaparro A, Sanz A, Quintero A, Inostroza C, Ramirez V, Carrion F, et al. Increased inflammatory biomarkers in early pregnancy is associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in patients with periodontitis: a case control study. Journal of periodontal research. 2013;48(3):302-7.

Sanz M, Kornman K, Working group 3 of joint EFPAAPw. Periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2013;40 Suppl 14:S164-9.

Boggess KA. Treatment of localized periodontal disease in pregnancy does not reduce the occurrence of preterm birth: results from the Periodontal Infections and Prematurity Study (PIPS). American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2010;202(2):101-2.

Vogt, Sallum, Cecatti, Morais. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women. Vogt et al, Reproductive Health. 2012;9:3.

Shetty M, Shetty PK, Ramesh A, Thomas B, Prabhu S, Rao A. Periodontal disease in pregnancy is a risk factor for preeclampsia. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. 2010;89(5):718-21.

Ganesh PR. Association between periodontitis, prematurity, low birth weight, and CRP levels – A case–control study. International Journal of Dental Science and Research. 2015;2(2-3):55-63.

AC A, Villar J, Lindheimer M. Maternal infection and risk of preeclampsia: Systematic review and metaanalysis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2008.

Aly. L, El-Menoufy., , H E, RH, Zaghloul., MZ,, Sabry. D. Maternal chronic oral infection with periodontitis and pericoronitis as a possible risk factor for preeclampsia in Egyptian pregnant women (microbiological and serological study). future dental jurnal. 2015;1: 23-32.

Huang X, Wang J, Liu J, Hua L, Zhang D, Hu T, et al. Maternal periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: A meta- analysis. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]. 2014;34(5):729-35.

Kemenkes RI. InfoDA TIN Situasi Kesehatan Ibu. 2014.

Sirait AM. Prevalensi Hipertensi pada Kehamilan di Indonesia dan Berbagai Faktor yang Berhubungan (Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007). Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan. 2012;15:103-9.

Kemenkes RI. Profil kesehatan indonesia. indonesia/profil-kesehatan-indonesia-2014.pdf. 2014.

Valensise H, Vasapollo B, Gagliardi G, Novelli GP. Early and Late Preeclampsia: Two Different Maternal Hemodynamic States in the Latent Phase of the Disease. Hypertension. 2008;52(5):873-80.

Ariningtyas. N, Dachlan. A, Krismariono. A. Perbandingan Kadar TNF-αdan Mikroba Patogen Periodontal pada Ibu Hamil Normal, Hamil dengan Periodontitis, dan Preeklampsia Berat Tipe Lambat. Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi. 2011;19:121-7.

Siqueira FM, Cota LO, Costa JE, Haddad JP, Lana AM, Costa FO. Maternal periodontitis as a potential risk variable for

preeclampsia: a case-control study. Journal of periodontology. 2008;79(2):207-15.

Politano GT, Passini R, Nomura ML, Velloso L, Morari J, Couto E. Correlation between periodontal disease, inflammatory

alterations and pre-eclampsia. Journal of periodontal research. 2011;46(4):505-11.

Genco.Robert J, S BW. Risk factors for periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000. 2013;62:59-94.

Stabholz WA, Aubrey S, Shapira.Lior. Genetic and environmental risk factors for chronic periodontitis and aggressive

periodontitis. Periodontology 2000. 2010;53:138-53.

Trogstad L, Magnus P, Stoltenberg C. Pre-eclampsia: Risk factors and causal models. Best practice & research Clinical

obstetrics & gynaecology. 2011;25(3):329-42.

Lisonkova S, Joseph KS. Incidence of preeclampsia: risk factors and outcomes associated with early- versus late-onset

disease. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2013;209(6):544 e1- e12.

Bilano VL, Ota E, Ganchimeg T, Mori R, Souza JP. Risk factors of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and its adverse outcomes in

low- and middle-income countries: a WHO secondary analysis. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e91198.

Song JW, Chung KC. Observational studies: cohort and case-control studies. Plastic and reconstructive surgery.


Xiong X, Buekens P, Goldenberg RL, Offenbacher S, Qian X. Optimal timing of periodontal disease treatment for prevention

of adverse pregnancy outcomes: before or during pregnancy? American journal of obstetrics and gynecology.

;205(2):111 e1-6.

RI K. Pedoman pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut ibu hamil dan anak usia balita bagi tenaga kesehatan di fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan. 2012.



How to Cite

Fitriyah, N. ., & Widyawati, M. N. (2017). PERIODONTITIS IN PREGNANCY AS RISK FACTORS OF PREECLAMPSIA : A LITERATURE REVIEW. Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health, (2), 278–285. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>