• Puput Kusumawardani Moehas Department of Health & Society, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University, Thailand


Birth Spacing, Child Marriage, Theory of Planned Behavior


Background: Child marriage has been proved resulting adverse outcomes for both groom and brides. Those who married before the age of 15, are more likely to have more than 3 children before they are 24 years old. This, along with the fact that girls are not physically mature enough to give birth, places both mothers and their babies at risk. This study aims to review factors that might influence decision making on spacing birth among child marriage couple in Indonesia.

Methods: Data from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Basic Health Research) of Indonesia 2013 were employed with additional several papers from other countries to strengthen the analysis. The theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were used to explain that behavior is not fully under control of the individuals.

Results: Girls aged of 15-19 were less likely to use contraception. Study shows the birth spacing was affected by attitudes toward behavior. The other factors are subjective norms, where people surrounding are influencing the birth spacing decision. Internal factor such as the affordability of the service may influence them to access the services. External factor such as the availability of the services will help them easier in accessing contraceptive for birth spacing.

Conclusions: Child marriage trends are start to decline year by year. Yet, the impact of child marriage needs to be reduced to make a better quality of life of the child marriage. A good practice and positive attitudes to birth spacing will lower the adverse impacts to the brides, and it can give a better outcome for the children as well.



Loaiza E, Wong S. Marrying Too Young - End Child Marriage [Internet]. Unfpa. 2012. 1-76

World Health Organisation. Report of a WHO Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing. World Heal Organ [Internet]. 2007; Available from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/birth_spacing.pdf

Girls Not Brides. Child marriage and female genital mutilation/cutting. 2016;2.

Unicef UNCF. Progress and prospects. End Child Marriage Prog Prospect UNICEF [Internet]. 2014;1–8. Available from:


Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tunçalp Ö, Moller AB, Daniels J, et al. Global causes of maternal death: A WHO systematic analysis.

Lancet Glob Heal. 2014;2(6):323–33.

SM A-A. The pattern and factors associated with child spacing in eastern Saudi Arabia. TT -. JRSH J R Soc Promot Heal.


de Vera NZ. Saving women’s lives by spacing births: A qualitative study. 2004;Ph.D.:260 p-260 p 1p. Available from:

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/login.aspx?direct=true&db=jlh&AN=109844279&site=ehost -live&scope=site

Shroff MR, Griffiths PL, Suchindran C, Nagalla B, Vazir S, Bentley ME. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India? NIH Public Access Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(3):447–55.

Dommermuth L, Klobas J, Lappegård T. Now or later? The Theory of Planned Behavior and timing of fertility intentions. Adv Life

Course Res. 2011;16(1):42–53.

Febriansyah M. Studi Tentang Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Program Keluarga Berencana Di Kecamatan Kota Bangun Kabupaten

Kutai Kartanegara. EJaournal Adm Negara. 2015;(3):873–84.

Riskesdas. 2013. "Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia 2013." In. Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia.

Ajzen, Icek. 1991. 'The theory of planned behavior', Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50: 179-211.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. 1978. 'Recasting Reproductive Freedom: Individual, Group, and Global Perspectives', Procreation: Power

and Personal Autonomy, Feminist Reflections.

Pylypa, Jen. 1998. 'Power and bodily practice: Applying the work of Foucault to an anthropology of the body', Arizona





How to Cite

Moehas, P. K. (2018). FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BIRTH SPACING AMONG CHILD MARRIAGE COUPLES IN INDONESIA. Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health, (3), 381–387. Retrieved from https://publications.inschool.id/index.php/icash/article/view/800