SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF MALARIA INCIDENCE ALONG HLAINGBWE TOWNSHIP IN MYANMAR AND THA SONG YANG DISTRICT IN THAILAND
Keywords:malaria, border regions, Thailand, Myanmar
Background: Malaria stays a serious public health problem in many countries of the world. The border regions are difficult to control for the malaria elimination due to the importation or reintroduction of malaria. A key to address such problem is reinforcing of surveillance activities with rapid identification. The objective of the study was to describe the malaria incidence rate and analyze the space and time distribution of malaria incidence rate in the high endemic border areas between Myanmar and
Thailand, the Hlaingbwe Township and Tha Song Yang District.
Methodology: Daily malaria data were collected, using a passive surveillance system, from patients visiting local health facilities in both Tha Song Yang and Hlaingbwe regions. ArcMap software version 10.4.1 was used to describe the disease mapping of malaria incidence rate in both regions.
Results: Compared to their counterparts, male gender had higher malaria incidence rates in both Tha Song Yang and Hlaingbwe regions. Non-Thai people had higher incidence rate than Thai in Tha Song Yang district. The higher incidence rates had seasonal pattern and the pattern was similar in both regions. The areas with a higher incidence rate could be seen in both inner side and along Thai- Myanmar border (upper and lower parts) in Tha Song Yang area. But in Hlaingbwe Township, the higher incidence rate occurred only in the inner and upper parts except for Me La Yaw and Tar Le areas which are situated along the Thai-Myanmar border. Along the border, the higher incidence rates were connected to the adjacent area in upper and lower parts between these two regions.
Conclusion: The descriptive statistics and presented map in this study gave the health policy makers an important overview of malaria situation in this regions in order to intervene high risk areas more effectively, and distribute the resources in a useful manner.
WHO: World Malaria Report 2016. In. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization(WHO); 2016.
WHO: World Malaria Report 2015. In. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization(WHO); 2015.
Parker DM, Carrara VI, Pukrittayakamee S, McGready R, Nosten FH: Malaria ecology along the Thailand–Myanmar border. Malaria
journal 2015, 14(1):388.
Hu Y, Zhou G, Ruan Y, Lee M-c, Xu X, Deng S, Bai Y, Zhang J, Morris J, Liu H: Seasonal dynamics and microgeographical spatial
heterogeneity of malaria along the China–Myanmar border. Acta tropica 2016, 157:12-19.
Wangdi K: Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination. MALARIA JOURNAL
Bhumiratana A, Intarapuk A, Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp P, Maneekan P, Koyadun S: Border malaria associated with multidrug
resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders: transmission dynamic, vulnerability, and surveillance. BioMed
research international 2013, 2013.
Sriwichai P, Karl S, Samung Y, Kiattibutr K, Sirichaisinthop J, Mueller I, Cui L, Sattabongkot J: Imported Plasmodium falciparum and
locally transmitted Plasmodium vivax: cross-border malaria transmission scenario in northwestern Thailand. Malar J 2017, 16(1):258.
Haddawy P, Hasan AI, Kasantikul R, Lawpoolsri S, Sa-angchai P, Kaewkungwal J, Singhasivanon P: Spatiotemporal Bayesian networks
for malaria prediction. Artificial intelligence in medicine 2017.
Richards AK, Banek K, Mullany LC, Lee CI, Smith L, Oo EK, Lee TJ: Cross-border malaria control for internally displaced persons:
observational results from a pilot programme in eastern Burma/Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health 2009, 14(5):512-521.
Le Menach A, Tatem AJ, Cohen JM, Hay SI, Randell H, Patil AP, Smith DL: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission
in Zanzibar. Scientific reports 2011, 1:93.
Cui L, Yan G, Sattabongkot J, Cao Y, Chen B, Chen X, Fan Q, Fang Q, Jongwutiwes S, Parker D et al: Malaria in the Greater Mekong
Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity. Acta Trop 2012, 121(3):227-239.
Wongsrichanalai C, Sirichaisinthop J, Karwacki JJ, Congpuong K, Miller RS, Pang L, Thimasarn K: Drug resistant malaria on the Thai-
Myanmar and Thai-Cambodian borders. 2001.
Klein E: Antimalarial drug resistance: a review of the biology and strategies to delay emergence and spread. International journal of
antimicrobial agents 2013, 41(4):311-317.
Pinichpongse S, Doberstyn E, Cullen J, Yisunsri L, Thongsombun Y, Thimasarn K: An evaluation of five regimens for the outpatient
therapy of falciparum malaria in Thailand 1980-81. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982, 60(6):907.
Ariey F, Duchemin J-B, Robert V: Metapopulation concepts applied to falciparum malaria and their impacts on the emergence and
spread of chloroquine resistance. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2003, 2(3):185-192.
Baird JK, Basri H, Weina P, MaGuire J, Barcus M, Picarema H, Elyazar I, Ayomi E: Adult Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua at
high risk of severe disease caused by malaria. Epidemiology & Infection 2003, 131(1):791-797.
Lalloo DG, Trevett AJ, Paul M, Korinhona A, Laurenson IF, Mapao J, Nwokolo N, Danga-Christian B, Black J, Saweri A: Severe and
complicated falciparum malaria in Melanesian adults in Papua New Guinea. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 1996, 55(2):119-124.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Each author(s) agree to transfer all copyrights and assign YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND, the Publisher of Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health, for the full term of exclusive copyright and any extensions or renewals of that terms thereof throughout the world, including but not limited to publish, disseminate, transmit, store, translate, distribute, sell, republish and use the Contribution and material contained therein in print and electronic form of the journal and in other derivative works, in all languages and any form of media of expression available now or in the future and to license or permit others to do so.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health is an open access following Creative Commons License Deed – Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). Users are allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material with one condition--appropriate credit is given to the journal.