WHAT HAPPENS IF THE BROMELAIN IN Ananas comosus L. Merr. GIVEN TO PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) ? : A REVIEW
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a global problem that requires serious treatment. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has the potential to cause side effects and drug resistance for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Alternative therapies using combination of bromelain and ART to maintain and improve immunity of PLWHA. The objective of the study was to describe the potential of bromelain in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) to increase the immune system of people living with HIV/AIDS.
Methodology: The research method used a systematic literature review. The literature that this study used was search through in the Science Direct and Google Schoolar database. The article search used the keyword Ananas comosus (L.) Merr, HIV/AIDS healing pathway or bromelain enzyme healing pathway HIV/AIDS and Pineapple "bromelain enzyme" for HIV/AIDS. Obtained 4 articles from 219 articles published between 2010 until 2019. The article used in this study written in English and Indonesian.
Results: The results showed that the bromelain enzyme in pineapple have proteolytic properties that can destroy the protein layers of the HIV viruses. The other benefit are immunomodulators that can increase the immune system of PLWHA by increasing CD4 counts or maintaining the stability of the CD4 count and reducing viral load levels even undetectable.
Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is bromelain in pineapple can be used as an alternative cure for PLWHA which do not have side effect and can destroy the HIV virus protein layer and increasing the immune system of PLWHA as well.
UNAIDS. UNAIDS Data 2018. Geneva: UNAIDS, 2018.
Stolley KS, Glass JE. HIV/AIDS. California: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009.
Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development. The Sustainable Development Goals and the UNAIDS Strategy, http://www.icad-
cisd.com/pdf/Publications/SDGs-and-UNAIDS-Strategy-2017.pdf ; 2016.
Akay C, Cooper M, Odeleye A, et al. Antiretroviral Drugs Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Damage in the Central Nervous
System. J Neurovirol 2014; 20: 39–53.
Liang J, Chen J, Tan Z, et al. Extracts of the Medicinal Herb Sanguisorba Officinalis Inhibit the Entry of Human Immunodeficiency
Virus-1. J Food Drug Anal 2013; 21: S52–S58.
Suthihono YA, Pandjaitan M, Nugraha T. Preliminary study of antivirus for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) using combined
protease enzyme (bromelain) and lipozyme. Proc - Int Conf Instrumentation, Commun Inf Technol Biomed Eng 2011, ICICI-BME
Pandjaitan M, M Tjandra, T Aswani, F Ughi, T Permana MP. Alternative Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Using Pineapple Juice. Adv Sci Eng Med 2015; 7: 911–914.
Pandjaitan M, Nugraha T, Pamudja KH. Bromelain enzyme in fresh pineapple juice as a healing pathway for HIV/AIDS. Adv Sci
Eng Med 2014; 6: 119–123.
Pandjaitan M, Nugraha T, et al. Bromelain Enzyme from Pineapple Fruit as an Antiviral Agent Against HIV, Hepatitis C and Human
Papilloma Virus. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, Medwell Journal 2018; 3: 3125-3130
Wardhani P, Nurbani. Efektivitas Pemberian Jus Nanas Dan Jus Sebagai Pendamping ARV Dalam Meningkatkan Kadar CD4 (Effectiveness of Pineapple and Papaya Juice as Side ARV in Improving CD4 Levels). Journal Health Vocation Vol II Number I,
Vickers A. Clinical review Recent advances Complementary medicine. Bmj 2000; 321: 683–686.
WHO. Traditional Medicine Strategy. World Heal Organ,
Onifadee A, Jewell AP, Okesina AB. Virologic and immunologic outcome of treatment of HIV infection with a herbal concoction,
A-zam, among clients seeking herbal remedy in Nigeria. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2011; 8: 37–44.
Farid Hossain M. Nutritional Value and Medicinal Benefits of Pineapple. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2015; 4: 84.
Engwerda CR, Andrew D, Ladhams A, et al. Bromelain modulates T cell and B cell immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Cell
Immunol 2001; 210: 66–75.
Phyllis A. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing. New York, USA: Penguin Putnam Inc, 2002.
Taussig SJ, Batkin S. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application. An update. J
Ethnopharmacol 1988; 22: 191–203.
Mic E, Hale LP, Haynes BF. Bromelain treatment of human T cells removes CD44, CD45RA, E2/MIC2, CD6, CD7, CD8, and Leu
/LAMI surface molecules and markedly enhances CD2-mediated T cell activation. Journal of Immunology, 1992; 149:3809-3816.
Fenard D, Lambeau G, Valentin E, et al. Secreted phospholipases A2, a new class of HIV inhibitors that block virus entry into host
cells. J Clin Invest 1999; 104: 611–618.
Zindagi, MD. HIV Treatment Education. New Delhi: UNESCO, 2015.
Sohila S, Kanagesan S, Rathnavelu V, et al. Potential role of bromelain in clinical and therapeutic applications. Biomed Reports
; 5: 283–288.
Corwin E. Patofisilogy. Jakarta: EGC, 2011.
Woodruff MC, Austen KF, Carroll MC, et al. B Cells Regulate CD4 + T Cell Responses to Papain following B Cell Receptor–
Independent Papain Uptake . J Immunol 2014; 193: 529–539.
Aravind G, Bhowmik D, Duraivel S, et al. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Carica papaya. J
Med Plants Stud Year J Med Plants Stud 2013; 1: 7–15.