COMPARISON OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTH EGG INFESTATION IN FECES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID) CHILDREN WITH NON-ID CHILDREN

Mellyna Iriyanti Sujana, Amanah Amanah, Handoyo Moch Yusuf

Abstract

Background: The worm infestation is considered as one of the causes of cognitive function disruption. It also can aggravate the condition in children with intellectual disability (ID). This greatly affects health conditions, such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, constipation and other digestive disorders. Indigestion may increase aggressive behaviour, mood change and malnutrition so that it leads to chronic malnutrition which is the cause of major morbidity and premature death in the ID population. This study aimed to compare soil-transmitted helminth egg infestation in stool samples between ID children and non-ID children.

Methodology: This present study was a descriptive study with a cross sectional design. Stool samples was collected from 30 students from Special Need School  and 60 students from Elementary School in the Cirebon City. The floating method was used to identify the egg of soil-transmitted helminth. The stool samples were examined in the Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Swadaya Gunung Jati, Cirebon, Indonesia

Results: The laboratory test found positively Soil-transmitted Helminth eggs in 9 of 30 stool sample of  ID students. Among them, it was found 5 stool samples with Ascaris lumbricoides, 2 stool samples of Trichuris trichiura, and 2 stool samples of Necator americanus. Regarding their levels, 4 students (44.4%) had mild intellectual disability and 5 students (55.6%) had moderate intellectual disability. However, there was not found any Soil-transmitted Helminth eggs in stool samples of non-ID children.

Conclusion: Soil-transmitted helminth eggs was found only in stool samples of ID children. The hygiene and sanitation in the school should be guaranteed to prevent the transmission of Soil-transmitted Helminth.

Full Text:

PDF

References

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.

Handayani, Ari Tri Wanodyo. Status Gizi Pada Penderita Retardasi Mental, Studi Di Slb Dharma Wanita Sidoarjo (Nutritional Status in Mental Retardation Patients, Study in Dharma Wanita Special Need School Sidoarjo). Stomatognatic. 2015;7(2):104-107.

Indonesia Basic Health Research. Health Research and Development Agency of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry. Indonesia. 2013.

Maslim R. Diagnosis Gangguan Jiwa Rujukan Ringkas dari PPDGJ-III dan DSM-5 (Brief Referral Psychiatric Diagnosis from PPDGJ-III and DSM-5). Jakarta:2013.

Eva NL. Gangguan perkembangan kognitif pada anak dengan infeksi soil transmitted helminth (Cognitive development disorders with soil transmitted helminth infection). 2015;4(8): 63-68.

Turner, S. Health Inequalities and People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: Implications and Actions for Commissioners and Providers of Social Care. Evidence into Practice Report. Improving Health and Lives: Learning Disabilities Observatory. London: Public Health England. 2011.

Mohammadi F, Hosseini-safa A, Ardakani MJE, Rostami-nejad M. The relationship between intestinal parasites and some immune-mediated intestinal conditions. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2015;8(2):123–31.

McSorley HJ, et al. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24092.

Dunne DW, Cooke A. A Worm’s Eye View of The Immune System: Consequences for Evolution of Human Autoimmune Disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(5):420-426.

Davis R, Proulx R, and Valk HCN. Health issues for people with intellectual disabilities: the evidence base. MHBK. 2013:7-16.

Strunecka A, Russell L. Blaylock, Mark A. Hyman and Paclt I. Cellular and molecular biology of autism spectrum disorders. Charles University in Prague Czech Republic. 2010:82-217.

Bolte ER. Autism and Clostridium tetani. Med Hypotheses. 1998;51(2):133–144.

Knivsberg, A. M., Reichelt, K. L., Hoien, T. & Nodland, M. A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutr Neurosci 2001;5(4):251–261.

Andaruni A, Sari F & Bangun S. Gambaran Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Infeksi Cacing pada Anak Di SDN 01 Pasirlangu Cisarua (Overview of the causes of worm infection in children at Pasirlangu 01 elementary school Cisarua). 2012;1(1):1-15.

Strunecka A, Russell L. Blaylock, Mark A. Hyman and Paclt I. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Charles University in Prague Czech Republic. 2016.

Diaz HR, et al. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108(7):3047-3052.

Abate E. The Impact of Helminth Infection in Patients witha Active Tuberculosis. Linkoping University Medical Dissertation. Sweden. 2013.

J McAfoose, BT Baune. Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function. Neurosci Biobehav. 2009;33(3):355–66.

Katz G, Lazcano-Ponce E. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Etiological Factors, Classification, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prognosis. Salud Publica Mex. 2008;50:s132-41.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.