THE COMPARISON OF DIARRHEA INCIDENCE BETWEEN 0-6 MONTHS OLD INFANTS WHO WERE EXCLUSIVELY BREASTFED, NON-EXCLUSIVELY BREASTFED AND GIVEN MILK FORMULA IN CIREBON CITY, INDONESIA
Background: Infant diarrhea is one of the major health issues in Indonesia due to its high incidence and mortality. In 2015, the mortality rate of diarrhea and gastroenteritis in infants under one year in hospitals in Cirebon was 21%. Inappropriate infant feeding practice is one of the risk factors of diarrhea in infants. WHO recommends that every infant should get exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding until 24 months of age. The aim of this study is to find out the difference in diarrhea incidence between 0-6 months old infants who were exclusively breastfed, non-exclusively breastfed, and given infant milk formula.
Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional design. A total of 89 infants aged 0-6 months old were recruited by purposive sampling. The primary data were obtained using questionnaires that were filled by the mother or caregiver of the infants. The data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test and Prevalence Ratio was calculated.
Results: The Chi-Square test showed a significant difference in diarrhea incidence between 0-6 months old infants who were exclusively breastfed, non-exclusively breastfed and infant milk formula (p=0,028). Infants who were not breastfed have 4 times higher risk of diarrhea (PR=4.145; CI95%= 1.198-14.400) compared to infants who were breastfed. Infants who were not exclusively breastfed has 3 times higher risk of diarrhea incidence compared to the infants receiving exclusive breastfeeding (RP=3.286; CI95%=1.144-9.434)Conclusion: Proper breastfeeding practice can decrease diarrhea incidence in infants aged 0-6 months. Mothers should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed her baby during the first 6 months of life.
Motamed F, Kazemi N, Nabavizadeh R. Assessment of Chronic Diarrhea in Early Infancy in Tehran Tertiary Care Center ; Tehran-Iran. 2015;3:45–50.
Melorose J, Perroy R, Careas S. Nelson Textbook of Paediatrics. Vol. 1, Statewide Agricultural Land Use Baseline. 2015. 23-49 p.
Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Situasi Diare di Indonesia (Diarrhea Situation in Indonesia). Vol. 2, Buletin jendela data & informasi kesehatan. 2011. 1-44 p.
Depkes RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Indonesian Basic Health Research). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan pengembangan Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan RI; 2013.
Sankar MJ, Sinha B, Chowdhury R, Bhandari N, Taneja S, Martines J, et al. Optimal breastfeeding practices and infant and child mortality : a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2015;3–13.
Aldy OS, Lubis BM, Sianturi P, Azlin E, Tjipta GD. Dampak Proteksi Air Susu Ibu Terhadap Infeksi (Impact of Mother's Milk Protection Against Infection). Sari Pediatri. 2016;
Istianingrum Y. Hubungan antara Pemberian ASI Eksklusif dengan Kejadian Diare dan Faktor-Faktor Risiko pada Bayi Berusia 6-12 Bulan di Kelurahan Bendungan Kecamatan Cilegon (The Correlation between Exclusive Breastfeeding and The Incidence of Diarrhea and Risk Factors in Infants Aged 6-12 Months in The Village of Bendungan, Cilegon). Jakarta; Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah; 2010
Maki F, Umboh A, Yudi A. Perbedaan Pemberian Asi Eksklusif dan Susu Formula Terhadap Kejadian Diare pada Bayi Usia 6-12 Bulan di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Ranotana Weru (Differences in Exclusive Breastfeeding and Formula Milk for Diarrhea in Babies 6-12 Months in Ranotana Weru Health Center). Vol. 5, eJournal Keperawatan (eKp). 2017.
Wicaksono MA. Intoleransi Laktosa (Lactose Intolerance). Mandala Heal. 2014;7.
Maulidar., Iskandar. Hubungan Pemberian Susu Formula dengan Kejadian Diare pada Bayi Usia 0-6 Bulan (Correlation formula milk feeding with the incidence of diarrhea in infants 0-6 months). Jurnal AcTion: Aceh Nutrition Journal 2016;1(2):73–77.
Heryanto E. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Pemberian Makanan Pendamping ASI Dini (Factors Associated with Giving Early Complementary Feeding). J Ilmu Kesehatan. 2017;2(2):141–152. Oloruntoba EO, Folarin TB, Ayede AI. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan , Nigeria. African Health Sciences 2014;14(4):1001-1011.
Agedew E. Early Initiation of Complementary Feeding and Associated Factors among 6 Months to 2 Years Young Children, in Kamba Woreda, South West Ethiopia: A Community –Based Cross - Sectional Study. J Nutr Food Sci [Internet]. 2014;04:1–74. Available from: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/early-initiation-of-complementary-feeding-and-associated-factors-among-months-to-years-young-children-in-kamba-woreda-south-west-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study-2155-9600.1000314.php?aid=32548.
Sentana K, Adyana I, Subanada I. Hubungan Pemberian ASI Eksklusif dengan Kejadian Diare pada Bayi (Correlation of Exclusive Breastfeeding with Diarrhea in Infants). E-Jurnal Med DOAJ. 2018;7.
Banerjee N, Chakraborty A, Lahiri A, Biswas K. Exclusive breast feeding reduces diarrhoeal episodes among children : results from a cross-sectional study among the mothers of under-five children in Kolkata. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2019;6:733–7.
Hanieh S, Ha TT, Simpson JA, Thuy TT, Khuong NC, Thoang DD, et al. Exclusive breast feeding in early infancy reduces the risk of inpatient admission for diarrhea and suspected pneumonia in rural Vietnam : a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2015;1–10.
Martin C, Ling P, Blackburn G. Review of Infant Feeding : Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. MDPI. 2016;8:1–11.