Yohannes Willihelm Saleky, Nipa Rojroongwasinkul


Background: There was 16.9% of population in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province with excess sugar intake, higher than national prevalence 4.8%. Nevertheless, there has not been studied yet about sugar intake of adolescents in this province. The adverse effects of excessive sugar intake leads to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, directly and indirectly through body weight and fat gain in later life. Twenty to forty percent of overweight adolescents are twice likely to develop CVD and seven times greater risk of atherosclerosis. Thus, it is important to prevent NCDs since the behaviours established during adolescent have life-long consequences particularly regarding NCDs in DIY Province. This study aims to assess the daily sugar intake and the main sources of sugar of adolescents in DIY province, Indonesia.

Methods: This is an observational study with cross sectional design with the targeted population of all the adolescents aged 15 to 17 years old in urban and rural area of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province, Indonesia. Four schools were chosen with the total sample of 380 students. Four instruments were used in this study i.e. general information questionnaire, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), digital weighing scale and BIA analysis, and microtoise. Mann Whitney test was used to analyze the difference of daily sugar intake between urban and rural area. Statistical tests were considered as significant at P <0·05.

Results: Means of daily sugar intake of adolescents were 107.0 g and 87.4 g in urban and rural area respectively. In urban area, the minimum intake of sugar was 15.2 g/day and the maximum intake of sugar was 317.2 g/day. Whereas in rural area, the minimum intake of sugar was 17.2 g/day and the maximum sugar intake was 87.4 g/day. There was a significant difference between average daily sugar intake of adolescents in urban and rural area (P= 0.004).

Conclusion: The main sources of sugar intake of adolescents both in urban and rural area were sweetened beverages, additional foods and sweet snacks respectively. 

Full Text:



WHO. Information note about intake of sugars recommended in the WHO guideline for adults and children. 2015; Available from:

Kahn R, Sievenpiper JL. Dietary sugar and body weight: Have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes? - We have but the pox on sugar is overwrought and overworked. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(4):957–62.

Rodríguez LA, Madsen KA, Cotterman C, Lustig RH. Added sugar intake and metabolic syndrome in US adolescents: cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012. Public Health Nutr [Internet]. 2016;19(13):2424–34. Available from:

Stanhope KL. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci [Internet]. 2016;53(1):52–67. Available from:

WHO (World Health Organization). Noncommunicable diseases are the no. 1 killers in the South-East Asia Region [Internet]. [cited 2017 Nov 1]. Available from:

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riskesdas dalam Angka - Nasional Tahun 2013. 2010.

Blum R, Gates WH. Non-Communicable Diseases and Adolescents: An opportunity for action. AstraZeneca. 2011;1–20.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Studi Diet Total:Survei Konsumsi Makanan Individu Indonesia 2014 [Internet]. Trihono, Atmarita, Jahari

AB, Kartono D, editors. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementrian Kesehatan RI; 2014. 1-232 p. Available


Furter E. The Māori Kai semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire : relative validity and reliability for assessing usual sugar intakes in New Zealand East Coast Māori. 2013.

BPS Propinsi DI Yogyakarta. Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Dalam Angka. 2011;

Sugianto. Riskesdas Dalam Angka DIY 2013 [Internet]. Herman S, Puspasar N, editors. Vol. 1. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan

Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2013. Available from:

content/uploads/2015/02/Riskesdas-Dalam-Angka-Prov-DIY .pdf

Rachmah Q. Development of Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) for Assessing Usual Sugar Intake in Adolescent

of East Java Province, Indonesia. Mahidol University; 2016.

Hanandita W, Tampubolon G. The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: Social determinants and geographical variations. SSM -

Popul Heal [Internet]. 2015;1:16–25. Available from:

Roemling C, Qaim M. Dual burden households and intra-household nutritional inequality in Indonesia. Econ Hum Biol [Internet]. 2013;11(4):563–73. Available from:

Amalia R, Schaub RMH, Widyanti N, Stewart R, Groothoff JW. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience

in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012;22(3):203–10.

Mulyani D, McIntyre J. Caries inhibitory effect of fluoridated sugar in a trial in Indonesia. Aust Dent J. 2002;47(4):314–20.

Welsh JA, Vos M. Consumption of Added Sugars and Indicators of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among US Adolescents and Adults.

Emory University; 2010.

NEUMARK-SZTAINER D, STORY M, PERRY C, CASEY MA. Factors Influencing Food Choices of Adolescents: Findings from

Focus-Group Discussions with Adolescents. Vol. 99, Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1999. p. 929–37.


  • There are currently no refbacks.