BURDEN OF CANCER ATTRIBUTABLE TO SMOKING IN GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) COUNTRIES

Mouaddh Abdulmalik, Montarat Thavorncharoensap

Abstract

Background: Smoking is a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. Smoking is recognized as the leading preventable cause of cancer and mortality from cancer. This study aims at estimating the number of cancer mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) attributable to smoking in GCC countries in 2015.
Methods: Smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain smoking attributable fractions (SAFs). Mortality data of people older than 15 years were derived from WHO deaths estimates while life expectation was obtained from WHO life tables 2015. Sixteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Results: Smoking is responsible for 2,141 cancer deaths among people aged 15 years and above in GCC countries (1,895 deaths among men, 246 deaths among women). This represents 15% of cancer deaths in GCC (26.43% in male, 3.5% in female). Additionally, cancer deaths attributable to smoking were responsible for 40,485 YPLL (35,361 years among men, 5,124 years among women).

Conclusion: Smoking causes a considerable burden in GCC countries in term of mortality and years of potential life lost. Effective smoking control initiatives and sustained efforts are needed to minimize cancer burden in the future. 

Full Text:

PDF

References

Wang H NM, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, et al. Global, regional, and national life expectancy all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death 1980–2015. Lancet. 2016;388:1459–544.

WHO. IARC Working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human.; 2004

CDC. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. National Library of Medicine Cataloging in Publication; 2014.

GCC. Health Ministers of Gulf Health Council 2018 [Available from: http://ghc.sa/en-us/Pages/ContactaddressesHealthMinisters.aspx.

CIA. The World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency The World Fact Book2018 [April 21, 2018]. Available from:

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html.

UN. World Population Prospects 2017 UN web site2017 [Available from:

https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/.

Hamadeh RR, Borgan SM, Sibai AM. Cancer Research in the Arab World: A review of publications from seven countries between

-2013. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2017;17(2):e147-e54.

Al-Othman S, Haoudi A, Alhomoud S, Alkhenizan A, Khoja T, Al-Zahrani A. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council

Countries. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(5):e246-e57.

Kulhanova I, Bray F, Fadhil I, Al-Zahrani AS, El-Basmy A, Anwar WA, et al. Profile of cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean region:

The need for action. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017;47:125-32.

Mokdad A. A tidal wave of cancer crashing on the Middle East. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. 2016.

Global Health Observatory data repository, Tobacco use Data by country 2015. [Internet]. 2015 [cited June 6, 2018]. Available from:

http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.1805?lang=en.

Maziak W, Nakkash R, Bahelah R, Husseini A, Fanous N, Eissenberg T. Tobacco in the Arab world: old and new epidemics amidst

policy paralysis. Health Policy Plan. 2014;29(6):784-94.

Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption

in 187 countries, 1980-2012. Jama. 2014;311(2):183-92.

WHO. Economics of tobacco toolkit: assessment of the economic costs of smoking. WHO Library: WHO; 2011.

WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2017 [Internet]. WHO. 2017 [cited June 10, 2018]. Available from:

http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2017/appendix-xi/en/.

Poirier AE, Grundy A, Khandwala F, Tamminen S, Friedenreich CM, Brenner DR. Cancer incidence attributable to tobacco in Alberta,

Canada, in 2012. CMAJ Open. 2016;4(4):E578-E87.

Gandini S, Botteri E, Iodice S, Boniol M, Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, et al. Tobacco smoking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(1):155-64.

Jayes L, Haslam PL, Gratziou CG, Powell P, Britton J, Vardavas C, et al. SmokeHaz: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses of the

Effects of Smoking on Respiratory Health. Chest. 2016;150(1):164-79.

WHO. Estimated deaths ('000) by cause, sex and WHO Member State, World Health Organization, Department of Information,

Evidence and Research 2017 [updated March 2017. Available from:

http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.html.

WHO. WHO life tables by country “Global Health Observatory data Repository" 2015 [updated 2018. Available from:

http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country.

Kristina SA, Endarti D, Thavorncharoensap M. Burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in member countries of the

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2012. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;44:84-90.

IARC. Attributable Causes of Cancer In France In The Year 2000. IARC Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: IARC, WHO 2007.

Kristina SA, Endarti D, Prabandari YS, Ahsan A, Thavorncharoensap M. Burden of Cancers Related to Smoking among the Indonesian

Population: Premature Mortality Costs and Years of Potential Life Lost. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015;16(16):6903-8.

Inoue M, Sawada N, Matsuda T, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Shimazu T, et al. Attributable causes of cancer in Japan in 2005--systematic

assessment to estimate current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan. Annals of oncology : official

journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2012;23(5):1362-9.

Parkin DM. Tobacco-attributable cancer burden in the UK in 2010. British journal of cancer. 2011;105 Suppl 2:S6-S13.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.