Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) essence in changing blood lipid profile of hypertension patients with hypercholesterolemia

Hadi Hadi, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Djamaluddin Ramlan

Abstract

Background: As like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and hypertension and its complications are one of the highest causes of death in the world.

Aims: This study aims to determine the potential of garlic essence (Allium sativum) mixed with honey in changing blood pressure and lipid profile of blood in the hypertension patients with hypercholesterolemia, and to compare the effectiveness with those who received Simvastatin, the most preferred pharmacological treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Methods: This research is a quasy experiment study with a Nonequivalent control group design. There were 22 hypercholesterolemia outpatients purposively selected from local health centers. The respondents were then divided equally to (a) a control group where the patients were provided with generic Simvastatin 10 mg single dose taken once in the afternoon, and (b) an intervention group where the respondents received a non-pharmacological supplement of garlic essence in 2 grams honey. The blood pressure and the blood lipid profile were examined before (Pretest) and at the Day 22 after the treatment (Posttest). The collected data was then analyzed using a T-test to define the significant mean difference between two groups, and a Cohen’s effect was measured to interpret the size of changes.

Results: Either the additions of Simvastatin or the provision of garlic essence mixed with honey decreased the blood pressure (systole and diastole) and the cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol, but increased the HDL cholesterol. While significant difference was observed for all parameters at the intervention group, the improvement at the control group for triglyceride was not significant (p value = 0.041). Overall, by the Cohen's effect size effect, we can interpret that the changes was moderate for diastole and systole blood pressure, and also triglyceride and DLD-cholesterol; however the effect size was low for Cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol.

Conclusion: The findings show the importance of the garlic essence mixed with honey to be offered as a nutritional supplement for hypertensive patients with hypercholesterolemia. 

 

Keywords: Garlic (Allium sativum) essence, Simvastatin, Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia, Blood pressure, Blood lipid profile.

Keywords

Garlic (Allium sativum) essence; Simvastatin; Hypertension; Hypercholesterolemia; Blood pressure; Blood lipid profile; Systole; Diastole; Cholesterol, Triglyceride; LDL; HDL; Low-density lipoprotein; High-density lipoprotein; Honey

Full Text:

PDF

References

Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Merz CNB, Blum CB, Eckel RH, et al. ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. the American College of Cardiology. 2014.

Kreisberg RA, Reusch JEB. Hyperlipidemia (High Blood Fat). The Hormone Foundation. 2005.

Nelson RH. Hyperlipidemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. Elsevier. 2013;40:195–211.

Stapleton PA, Goodwill AG, James ME, Brock RW, Frisbee JC. Hypercholesterolemia and microvascular dysfunction: interventional strategies. Journal of Inflammation. 2010;7(1):54.

Kaplan NM, Victor RG. Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension: Wollters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. 455 p.

Direktorat Bina Farmasi Komunitas dan Klinik. Pharmaceutical care untuk penyakit hipertensi (pharmaceutical care for hypertension). Jakarta: Direktorat Bina Farmasi Komunitas dan Klinik Ditjen Bina Kefarmasian dan Alat Kesehatan; 2006.

Kumala M. Peran diet dalam pencegahan dan terapi hipertensi (Diet for prevention and hypertension theraphy. Damianus Journal of Medicine. 2014;13(1):50–61.

Fitriana R, Lipocto NI, Triana V. Faktor risiko kejadian hipertensi pada remaja di wilayah kerja puskesmas rawat inap Sidomulyo, Kota Baru (Hypertension incidence in teenager at the inpatient unit care of Sidumolyo's health center, Pekanbaru City). Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2012;7(1).

Arsana PM, Rosandi R, Manaf A, Budhiarta A, Hikmat Permana, Sucipta KW, et al. Panduan Pengelolaan Dislipidemia di Indonesia - 2015: PB.PERKENI; 2015.

Henley E, Chang L, Hollander S, Illinois R. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia. The Journal of Family Practice. 2002;51:4.

Varras J. Managing Hyperlipidemia: An Evidence-Based Approach. Journal of Managed Care Medicine. 2010;11:2.

Verma N. Introduction to hyperlipidemia and its treatment: A review. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2016;9(1): 6-14.

Asdaq SM, Inamdar MN. Potential of garlic and its active constituent, S-allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in presence of captopril. elsevier. 2010;17:1016–26.

Rahajeng E, Tuminah S. Prevalensi Hipertensi dan Determinannya di Indonesia. Kedokteran Indonesia. 2009;50(12).

Fauziah NA, Praselia O. Correlation of age and parity with hypertension incidence among pregnant women. Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health. 2017(2):264-8.

Wratsangka R. Pemberian terapi sulih hormon sebagai upaya meningkatkan kesehatan wanita menopause (The provision of hormon theraphy to increase the health of menopause woman). J Kedokter Trisakti. 2011;18(3):155-62.

Korneliani K, Meida D. Obesitas dan stress dengan kejadian hipertensi (Obesity and stress with the hypertension incidence). Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2012;2:117-21.

Rosenthal T, Alter A. Occupational stress and hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2012;6(1):2-22.

Trevor A, Katzung BG, Masters S. Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review: Eighth Edition: McGraw Hill Professional, 2008; 2008.

Reinhart KM, Talati R, White CM, Coleman CI. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters. Nutrition research. 2009;22:39-48.

Yeh Y-Y, Liu L. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Garlic Extracts and Organosulfur Compounds: Human and Animal Studies. American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 2001.

Singh VK, Singh DK. Pharmacological Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.). ARBS Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences. 2008;10:6-26.

Bhandari PR. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2012;6:118-29.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.